Space weather is the electromagnetic and particle environment of the Solar System. The Sun drives space weather, mainly by generating coronal mass ejections (CME’s), flares, and the solar wind. CME’s and flares are impulsive events in the solar atmosphere that generate high energy electromagnetic radiation, particles, and shock waves. The solar wind is an ever present stream of electromagnetic fields and particles that flows outward from the Sun. The high energy radiation and particles are a danger to astronauts, and passengers on high flying aircraft, and can disrupt and seriously damage satellite and aircraft systems, including communication and navigation systems. The electromagnetic fields of CME’s and the solar wind can interact with the Earth’s magnetic field, causing geomagnetic storms that can and have disrupted terrestrial power transmission and caused widespread power blackouts. As our civilization extends its reach further out into space, and becomes increasingly reliant on electronic systems, it becomes more vulnerable to the effects of space weather, increasing the need for accurate space weather prediction. The mechanisms in the solar atmosphere that cause CME’s, flares, and the solar wind are not clearly identified or well understood. Identifying and understanding these mechanisms is important for space weather prediction.

The High Technology Foundation performs basic research, mainly funded by the National Science Foundation, to identify and understand these mechanisms. This research focuses on modeling heating, ionization, radiation, and particle acceleration mechanisms in the Sun’s atmosphere using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the solar plasma. WVHTC Foundation also provides consulting for mitigating and preventing harmful effects of space weather.


The picture above is an artist’s conception of particles and electromagnetic fields propagating from the Sun at left to the Earth at right, and interacting with the Earth’s magnetic field. The lines represent the magnetic field.

Journal articles resulting from this work:

  • “Radiating Current Sheets in the Solar Chromosphere”, Goodman, M.L. & Judge, P.G. 2012, ApJ, submitted.
  • “Conditions for Photospherically Driven Alfvenic Oscillations to Heat the Solar Chromosphere by Pedersen Current Dissipation”, Goodman, M.L., 2011, ApJ, 735, 45.
  • “Analytic Solutions for Current Sheet Structure Determined by Self-Consistent, Anisotropic Transport Processes in a Gravitational Field”, Goodman, M.L., 2011, ApJ, 731, 19.
  • “Anisotropic Transport Processes in the Chromosphere and Overlying Atmosphere”, Goodman, M.L. & Kazeminezhad, F. 2010, Journal of the Italian Astronomical Society (Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana), 81, 631.
  • “Simulation of Magnetohydrodynamic Shock Wave Generation, Propagation, and Heating in the Photosphere and Chromosphere Using a Complete Electrical Conductivity Tensor”, Goodman, M.L. & Kazeminezhad, F. 2010, ApJ, 708, 268.
  • “Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Solar Chromospheric Dynamics Using a Complete Electrical Conductivity Tensor”, Kazeminezhad, F. & Goodman, M.L., 2006, ApJS, 166, 613.
  • “Self Consistent Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of Current Sheet Structure and Heating Using Realistic Descriptions of Transport Processes”, Goodman, M.L., 2005, ApJ, 632, 1168.
  • “On the Creation of the Chromospheres of Solar Type Stars”, Goodman, M.L., 2004, Astron. & Astrophys., 424, 691.
  • “On the Efficiency of Plasma Heating by Pedersen Current Dissipation From the Photosphere to the Upper Chromosphere”, Goodman, M.L. 2004, Astron. & Astrophys., 416, 1159.
  • “On the Mechanism of Chromospheric Network Heating, and the Condition for its Onset in the Sun and Other Solar Type Stars”, Goodman M.L. 2000, ApJ, 533, 501.
  • “Quantitative MHD Modeling of the Solar Transition Region”, Goodman M.L. 1998, ApJ, 503, 938.
  • “Convection Driven Heating of the Solar Middle Chromosphere by Resistive Dissipation of Large Scale Electric Currents – II”, Goodman M.L. 1997, Astron. & Astrophys., 325, 341.
  • “Convection Driven Heating of the Solar Middle Chromosphere by Resistive Dissipation of Large Scale Electric Currents”, Goodman M.L. 1997, Astron. & Astrophys., 324, 311.
  • “Heating of the Solar Middle Chromospheric Network and Internetwork by Large Scale Electric Currents in Weakly Ionized Magnetic Elements”, Goodman M.L. 1996, ApJ, 463, 784.
  • “Heating of the Solar Middle Chromosphere by Large Scale Electric Currents”, Goodman M.L. 1995, ApJ, 443, 450.


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